What is Earthquake? | Tectonic Plates | Seismic Waves | Richter Scale | Ring of Fire

Q 1. What is Earthquake?

Ans. An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the Earth’s surface caused by the movement of tectonic plates or other geological factors. It releases accumulated energy in the form of seismic waves, leading to ground vibrations that can range from mild tremors to powerful disruptions with potential for damage.

Q 2. What caused it earthquake?

Ans. Earthquakes are caused by the sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust. This energy can be accumulated due to the movement of tectonic plates, volcanic activity, or human-induced factors. When the stress in the crust exceeds the strength of the rocks, the rocks break along faults and create seismic waves. These waves travel through the Earth and cause shaking and damage on the surface.

Q 3. What is seismic waves?

Ans. Seismic waves are vibrations that travel through the Earth or along its surface due to an earthquake, explosion, or other energetic source. There are two main types of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves. Body waves move through the interior of the Earth and can be divided into primary (P) waves and secondary (S) waves. Surface waves move along the surface of the Earth and can cause more damage than body waves.

Q 4. What are types of earthquakes?

Ans. There are four types of earthquakes:
1 tectonic
2 volcanic
3 collapse
4 explosion
Tectonic earthquakes are the most common and occur when rocks break along faults due to stress from plate motions.
Volcanic earthquakes are associated with the eruption of magma from volcanoes or underground chambers.
Collapse earthquakes are caused by the collapse of underground structures such as mines, caves or sinkholes.
Explosion earthquakes are triggered by human activities such as nuclear tests, mining blasts or chemical explosions.

Q. 5 What was the largest earthquake?

Ans. The largest earthquake ever recorded was the Valdivia Earthquake, also known as the Great Chilean Earthquake, which occurred on May 22, 1960 near Valdivia, in southern Chile. It was assigned a magnitude of 9.5 by the United States Geological Survey. The earthquake was triggered by the Nazca Plate pushing its way further beneath the South American Plate.

Q. 6 What is the biggest earthquake in India?

Ans. The strongest earthquake ever recorded in India was the Assam-Tibet earthquake, which occurred on August 15, 1950, in the India-China region with a magnitude of 8.6 on the Richter scale. The shifting of tectonic plates in a depth of 30 km resulted in 1530 deaths. The earthquake also triggered a tsunami, leading to further victims and destruction.

What is Earthquake? | Tectonic Plates | Seismic Waves | Richter Scale | Ring of Fire
Seismic Waves | Richter Scale
Q. 7 What is the 10 biggest earthquake in the world?

Ans. Here is a list of the 10 largest earthquakes ever recorded in the world:

  • 1 Valdivia, Chile (May 22, 1960) – Magnitude: 9.5. This earthquake killed 1,655 people, injured 3,000 and displaced two million. It caused US$550 million damage in Chile, while the tsunami that it spawned caused deaths and damage as far away as Hawaii, Japan and the Philippines.
  • 2 Prince William Sound, Alaska (March 27, 1964) – Magnitude: 9.2.
  • 3 Sumatra-Andaman Islands (December 26, 2004) – Magnitude: 9.1-9.3.
  • 4 Sendai, Japan (March 11, 2011) – Magnitude: 9.0-9.1.
  • 5 Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia (November 4, 1952) – Magnitude: 9.0.
  • 6 Bio-Bio, Chile (February 27, 2010) – Magnitude: 8.8.
  • 7 Ecuador-Colombia (January 31, 1906) – Magnitude: 8.8.
  • 8 Rat Islands, Alaska (February 4, 1965) – Magnitude: 8.7.
  • 9 Northern Sumatra, Indonesia (March 28, 2005) – Magnitude: 8.6-8.7.
  • 10 Assam-Tibet (August 15, 1950) – Magnitude: 8.6.
Q. 8 Where will earthquake occur?

Ans. Earthquakes are unpredictable natural phenomena that occur when the tectonic plates of the Earth’s crust move and release energy. The location of an earthquake depends on the fault lines and the stress accumulation in the crust. Scientists use seismometers to measure the seismic waves and estimate the magnitude and epicenter of an earthquake, but they cannot predict exactly when or where an earthquake will happen.

Q. 9 What are the effects of the earthquake?

Ans. The effects of the earthquake can be devastating for people, buildings and the environment. Some of the common effects are ground shaking, surface faulting, landslides, liquefaction, tsunamis and fires. These effects can cause injuries, deaths, damage to infrastructure and displacement of populations. The severity of the effects depends on the magnitude, depth, location and duration of the earthquake, as well as the geology and vulnerability of the area.

Q. 10 How long an earthquake last?

ans. The duration of an earthquake depends on several factors, such as the magnitude, the depth, the location and the type of faulting involved. Generally, the larger the earthquake, the longer it lasts. For example, a magnitude 6 earthquake may last for about 10 seconds, while a magnitude 9 earthquake may last for more than 3 minutes. However, these are only rough estimates and the actual duration may vary depending on the specific conditions of each event.

Q. 11 Which country of the world is known for earthquake?

Ans. Japan is the country of the world that is known for earthquake. Japan is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, an area around the Pacific Ocean that is prone to tectonic activity and earthquakes. Japan experiences earthquakes that are larger than 6.0 magnitude nearly every year, and has developed a technology to detect and notify its residents of an impending earthquake. Japan also faces the risk of volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters due to its seismic location.

Q. 12 What is the cause of earthquakes in India?

Ans. Earthquakes in India are mainly caused by the movement and collision of tectonic plates. The Indian plate is converging with the Eurasian plate, leading to intense pressure and stress buildup along the plate boundaries. This results in frequent and sometimes powerful earthquakes, especially in the Himalayan region and the North-Eastern part of the country. Other causes of earthquakes in India include volcanic activity, underground mining, nuclear explosions, and reservoir-induced seismicity.

Q. 13 Why do we need to prepare for an earthquake?

Ans. Earthquakes are natural phenomena that can cause severe damage to buildings, infrastructure, and human lives. They can occur at any time and place, and often without warning. Therefore, it is important to prepare for an earthquake before it happens, by taking measures such as securing furniture and objects, creating an emergency plan, and having a survival kit ready. By preparing for an earthquake, we can reduce the risk of injuries, fatalities, and property loss, and increase our resilience and recovery after the disaster.

Q. 14 Can anyone predict earthquakes?

Ans. No, scientists cannot predict earthquakes with certainty. They can only estimate the probability of an earthquake occurring in a given region and time period based on historical data and geological factors. However, there is no reliable way to know when and where an earthquake will strike, or how strong it will be.

Q. 15 Which country is earthquake free?

Ans. There is no country that is completely free from earthquakes. However, some countries have lower seismic activity than others due to their location on the Earth’s crust. For example, Australia, Canada, and Brazil are among the countries with the lowest earthquake risk, while Japan, Indonesia, and Chile are among the countries with the highest earthquake risk.

Q. 16 Where is the Ring of Fire?

Ans. The Ring of Fire is a region around the Pacific Ocean where many volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur. It is shaped like a horseshoe and is about 40,000 km long and 500 km wide. It is caused by the movement and collision of tectonic plates under and around the ocean. The Ring of Fire has more than 450 active volcanoes and is the source of 90% of Earth’s earthquakes.

What is Earthquake? | Tectonic Plates | Seismic Waves | Richter Scale | Ring of Fire
Ring of Fire
Q. 17 Why India has less earthquakes?

Ans. India has less earthquakes because most of its land is not near the boundaries of tectonic plates, which are the main sources of seismic activity. The Deccan Plateau, for example, is located in the stable interior of the Indian plate and experiences very few earthquakes. The regions that are more prone to earthquakes are those that lie along the Himalayan arc, where the Indian plate is colliding with the Eurasian plate, or along the coastal areas, where the Indian plate is subducting under the Burma plate.

Q. 18 Can birds sense earthquake?

Ans. The question of whether birds can sense earthquakes has been debated for a long time. Some researchers suggest that birds may have the ability to detect magnetic fields, which could be altered by seismic activity before an earthquake strikes. However, there is not enough scientific evidence to confirm this hypothesis, and other factors such as weather, noise, and human activity may also affect bird behaviour. Therefore, the short answer to the question is: maybe, but we don’t know for sure.

What is Earthquake? | Drop! Cover! Hold on!
Drop! Cover! Hold on!
Q. 19 What are Drop, Cover and Hold On?

Ans. Drop, cover and hold on is a safety procedure that can help protect you from injuries during an earthquake. It involves three steps:

  • Drop to the ground before the earthquake knocks you down.
  • Cover your head and neck with your arms and seek shelter under a sturdy table or desk if possible.
  • Hold on to your shelter or your position until the shaking stops and it is safe to move.
    Following these steps can reduce the risk of being hit by falling objects, flying debris or collapsing structures.

Earthquake Wikipedia | Earthquake Dos And Don’ts

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